CHAPTER ONE SECTIONS ONE &
the first European settlements in North America
and the hardships SETTLERS faced.
First European settlements in North America were the Spanish in
California and Florida, the British Colonies in Massachusetts,
Virginia, and Carolina, the French outposts in Canada and along the
Ohio River, and the Dutch in New Netherlands. These early settlements all
faced similar problems. First
was finding enough food until they could get regular farm
production. Second was dealing with
the natives who after initially welcoming them began to resist
their presence and try to kill them.
Third was the climate and geography which was harsh winters
and soil that required a lot of rock and tree removal before it
could be used for farming.
settlements that survived were Santa Fe, St Augustine, Plymouth,
Jamestown, Raleigh, Quebec, New Orleans, and New Amsterdam (New
York). The Europeans often attacked
each other such as the English capture of New Netherlands,
the fighting over St Augustine, and
the Spanish raids on Jamestown. Some settlements failed, most
the importance of the legislature in Virginia.
House of Burgesses was established to allow land owning
colonists the right to govern their affairs. This was done to attract
House of Burgesses set an example for representative government and
other colonies soon set up their own legislatures
why each of the Middle Colonies was settled.
Middle Colonies of New York, Pennsylvania,
New Jersey, and Delaware were initially
controlled by the Dutch. New
York (New Amsterdam) initially attracted the Dutch and
then British interest because of its potential for wealth
because of the harbor at the mouth of the Hudson River.
Pennsylvania was established as a Quaker
refuge from persecution in England. The Middle Colonies
attracted many non-English settlers from Germany,
Holland, and Sweden.
Middle Colonies were able to produce large quantities of wheat and
other cash crops. The
Middle Colonies had a reputation of religious tolerance which
attracted many settlers.
the growth of population, agriculture and trade in the colonies.
grew because of three reasons: Religious tolerance, potential for
wealth, and people in the colonies were having more children. Agriculture grew in the
middle colonies because of crops like wheat and tobacco.
In New England subsistence
farming proved a way to support settlers.
The southern colonies began growing tobacco, rice, and sugar
relying on slave labor for large scale farming.
Trade revolved around three areas: Europe, Africa, and the Americas
(North America and the Caribbean). Raw materials and rum
passed from America to Europe
in exchange for manufactured goods.
The goods along with rum went Africa
to procure slaves. The
slaves and goods went to the Caribbean and then sugar and molasses
went to America
along with some slaves (mostly to the south) and the goods. This became known as
produced large quantities of wood and ship build was there largest
slaves were first used in the south until cheaper and more plentiful
slaves from Africa became available.
A great debate arose about the use of slaves with the northern
states believing it to be wrong and the southern states seeing it as
nothing that hadnt happened before as a legitimate way to make
the influence of religion and education on American culture.
played an important part in early America first because
many pilgrims had come here.
By the 1740s a religious rebirth called the Great
Awakening occurred where ministers called for a return to strong
faith. This strength of
faith combined with a freedom to choose ones religion
weakened the strength of established state churches like the
Anglican and Catholics. Education
was closely related to religion because the first colleges were
established to train ministers. New
England placed a strong emphasis on education of children
in most communities. The Middle Colonies had a
wide spread of schools but less than New England. In the South education was
mostly for wealthy landowners. Along
with schools; books, newspapers, and almanacs spread knowledge
that was both practical for daily use and informative about
ideas of the Enlightenment.
Baptist preacher said during the Great Awakening: the common
people now claim as good a right to judge and act in matters of
religion as civil rulers or the learned clergy.
The Great Awakening united the north and south and paved the
way for revolutionary fervor and political ideas during the struggle
for independence. One idea that became popular
was the belief that the ultimate source of power for a government was