1.  Discuss the first European settlements in North America and the hardships SETTLERS faced.


3-The First European settlements in North America were the Spanish in California and Florida, the British Colonies in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Carolina, the French outposts in Canada and along the Ohio River, and the Dutch in New Netherlands.  These early settlements all faced similar problems.  First was finding enough food until they could get regular farm production.  Second was dealing with the natives who after initially welcoming them began to resist their presence and try to kill them.  Third was the climate and geography which was harsh winters and soil that required a lot of rock and tree removal before it could be used for farming.

4-Major settlements that survived were Santa Fe, St Augustine, Plymouth, Jamestown, Raleigh, Quebec, New Orleans, and New Amsterdam (New York).  The Europeans often attacked each other such as the English capture of New Netherlands, the fighting over St Augustine, and the Spanish raids on Jamestown.  Some settlements failed, most notably Roanoke.


2.  Identify the importance of the legislature in Virginia.


3-The House of Burgesses was established to allow land owning colonists the right to govern their affairs.  This was done to attract more settlers.

4-The House of Burgesses set an example for representative government and other colonies soon set up their own legislatures


3.  Explain why each of the Middle Colonies was settled.


3-The Middle Colonies of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware were initially controlled by the Dutch.  New York (New Amsterdam) initially attracted the Dutch and then British interest because of its potential for wealth because of the harbor at the mouth of the Hudson River.  Pennsylvania was established as a Quaker refuge from persecution in England.  The Middle Colonies attracted many non-English settlers from Germany, Holland, and Sweden.

4-The Middle Colonies were able to produce large quantities of wheat and other cash crops.  The Middle Colonies had a reputation of religious tolerance which attracted many settlers.


4.  Explain the growth of population, agriculture and trade in the colonies.


3-Population grew because of three reasons: Religious tolerance, potential for wealth, and people in the colonies were having more children.  Agriculture grew in the middle colonies because of crops like wheat and tobacco.  In New England subsistence farming proved a way to support settlers.  The southern colonies began growing tobacco, rice, and sugar relying on slave labor for large scale farming.  Trade revolved around three areas: Europe, Africa, and the Americas (North America and the Caribbean).  Raw materials and rum passed from America to Europe in exchange for manufactured goods.  The goods along with rum went Africa to procure slaves.  The slaves and goods went to the Caribbean and then sugar and molasses went to America along with some slaves (mostly to the south) and the goods.  This became known as Triangular Trade.

4-New England produced large quantities of wood and ship build was there largest industry.  Indentured slaves were first used in the south until cheaper and more plentiful slaves from Africa became available.  A great debate arose about the use of slaves with the northern states believing it to be wrong and the southern states seeing it as nothing that hadn’t happened before as a legitimate way to make money.



5.  Identify the influence of religion and education on American culture.


3-Religion played an important part in early America first because many pilgrims had come here.  By the 1740’s a religious rebirth called the Great Awakening occurred where ministers called for a return to strong faith.  This strength of faith combined with a freedom to choose one’s religion weakened the strength of established state churches like the Anglican and Catholics.  Education was closely related to religion because the first colleges were established to train ministers.  New England placed a strong emphasis on education of children in most communities.  The Middle Colonies had a wide spread of schools but less than New England.  In the South education was mostly for wealthy landowners.  Along with schools; books, newspapers, and almanacs spread knowledge that was both practical for daily use and informative about ideas of the Enlightenment.

4-A Baptist preacher said during the Great Awakening: “the common people now claim as good a right to judge and act in matters of religion as civil rulers or the learned clergy.”  The Great Awakening united the north and south and paved the way for revolutionary fervor and political ideas during the struggle for independence.  One idea that became popular was the belief that the ultimate source of power for a government was the people.


Mr. James P. Realini
(408) 522-8288 EXT 509