1.  A. Describe how Thomas Jefferson became President.  B. After his election, why was the Twelfth Amendment added to the Constitution?

A The election was deadlocked (a tie) in the Electoral College between Jefferson & Burr. They both received 73 votes. The House of Representatives then voted 34 time to elect a President. States received one vote only.  Jefferson received 7 votes and Burr Received 7 votes with Delaware voting for Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton finally asked Delaware to vote for Jefferson because he despised Burr. Jefferson then was inaugurated as President.


The Twelfth Amendment changed the Electoral Process.  Separate Ballots for President and Vice-President were held.



2.  OUTLINE the goals Jefferson set in his inauguration address of 1801.


He wanted a wise and frugal government.

He believed that less laws and less bills would allow people “laissez faire” or let them do as they choose.

He wanted to support state governments in all there rights.

He wanted to reduce the size and power of the federal government.

He believed a large central government threatened individual liberty and that the states could best protect freedom.

#3-QUESTION:  Describe the Marbury vs Madison decision and the three principles of JUDICIAL REVIEW.

1. President Adams appoints judges [sympathetic to Federalism] on his last night as President, March 3rd 1801

2. Leaves them on his Secretary of State’s Desk: John Marshall

3. President Jefferson tells James Madison Secretary of State NOT to deliver the Commissions

4. Jefferson appoints John Marshall Chief Justice

5. William Marbury sues US Government to force delivery of commissions

6. John Marshall determines that Court did not have Jurisdiction to decide Marbury’s Case.


Constitution is the Supreme Law of the Land

Article III, Constitution



When there is a conflict with any law the Constitution must be followed

Supreme Court has the right/duty to review any action or law to determine if it violates the constitution



The Judicial branch has a duty to uphold the Constitution

The Supreme Court (only) can nullify a law


#4-Explain HOW Jefferson’s Administration LEGALLY purchased the Louisiana territory.


Jefferson determined that his TREATY Making powers under Article II of the Constitution allowed him to purchase land from other countries.

The Senate approved the purchase as a Treaty.

The Treaty/Purchase acquired a vast amount of cheap fertile farm land; established control of The Mississippi, The Ohio, The Missouri, The Tennessee, and The Cumberland River; and gained control of New Orleans, the Gateway to the Atlantic



#5-QUESTION: Describe Lewis and Clarks Expedition.  How long?  Where? What did they do?

#5-ANSWER: Thomas Jefferson selected Meriweather Lewis, who then selected William Clark to set up a Corps of Discovery to explore the newly acquired territory.  From May 1804 to September 1806 the Corps of Discovery explored the Missouri River into the Rocky Mountains. Along the way, the encountered many Native peoples and acquired a guide, Sacajewea, from the ManDan Tribe.  After crossing the Rocky Mountains, they followed the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean near present day Astoria, Oregon where they spent a second winter at Fort Clatsop.  They discovered many new species of plants and animals, prepared accurate maps, established contact with many new peoples in the territory, and they came back and reported on what they had found.

List early American achievements in the following areas:


Artists (painters) turned their interest to people and landscapes

George Caitlin painted daily native life

Thomas Doughty led the Hudson River School that painted views of the Hudson River and Catskill Mountains


Schooling was thought to be important

Mass & Philadelphia began public school systems

In-home & “dame” schools became numerous

NW Ordinance of 1787 provided for schools


2nd Great Awakening

Inspired movements to curb drinking, end slavery, and advance education

Independent Baptist Churches
first African Methodist Episcopal Church


Turned away from European influence

Washington Irving wrote about rural NY
Sketch Book, Rip Van Winkle, Legend of Sleepy Hollow

James Fennimore Cooper, Last of the Mohicans, The Deerslayer

Wm C Bryant, Thanatopsis poem that tried to understand life & death by studying nature


Banjos & pianos

Musicals in barns, tents, or cabins

Stephen C Foster combined African & European music to create unique American melodies My Old Kentucky Home, Swanee River


Greek & Roman styles were used for public buildings

Greek Revival style used for plantations in the south

Monticello [Jefferson’s home] and the University of Virginia used classical styles.