Name: 
 

Reconstruction



Matching
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
Andrew Johnson
f.
Ku Klux Klan
b.
Fourteenth Amendment
g.
Amnesty Act
c.
Thirteenth Amendment
h.
Freedmen’s Bureau
d.
Redeemers
i.
Reconstruction
e.
Blanche K. Bruce
j.
public schools
 

 1. 

created by Reconstruction governments
 

 2. 

the period of rebuilding the South after the Civil War
 

 3. 

used violence and terrorism to deny rights to freed men and women
 

 4. 

impeached in 1868
 

 5. 

leaders in the South who supported economic development and opposed Northern interference
 

 6. 

outlawed slavery in the United States
 

 7. 

government agency that helped African Americans adjust to freedom
 

 8. 

gave full citizenship and equal protection to all people born in the U.S.
 

 9. 

African-American senator from Mississippi
 

 10. 

pardoned most former Confederates and allowed them to vote and hold office
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
Hiram Revels
f.
scalawags
b.
Tennessee
g.
black codes
c.
Ten Percent Plan
h.
Compromise of 1877
d.
Fifteenth Amendment
i.
Radical Reconstruction
e.
Jim Crow laws
j.
Abraham Lincoln
 

 11. 

Republicans promised to withdraw troops from Southern states
 

 12. 

plan proposed by Lincoln for accepting the South back into the Union
 

 13. 

African-American man elected to the Senate from Mississippi
 

 14. 

period when Radical Republicans in Congress directed Reconstruction
 

 15. 

laws passed in the South designed to control freed men and women
 

 16. 

term for Southerners who supported the Republicans
 

 17. 

his assassination changed the course of Reconstruction
 

 18. 

first to rejoin the Union
 

 19. 

African American men won the right to vote
 

 20. 

required African Americans and whites to remain separate in all pubic places
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
amnesty
d.
Thaddeus Stevens
b.
Reconstruction
e.
John Wilkes Booth
c.
freedmen
 

 21. 

former enslaved persons after the Civil War
 

 22. 

a leading Radical Republican
 

 23. 

actor who killed Lincoln
 

 24. 

what Lincoln offered the South
 

 25. 

period of rebuilding the South
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
black codes
d.
Edwin Stanton
b.
Tenure of Office Act
e.
Ulysses S. Grant
c.
Johnson’s impeachment
 

 26. 

elected U.S. President in 1868
 

 27. 

laws intended to control freed men and women in the South
 

 28. 

one vote short
 

 29. 

Secretary of War removed by Johnson
 

 30. 

intended to limit the president’s power
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
Hiram Revels
d.
Ku Klux Klan
b.
carpetbaggers
e.
sharecropping
c.
Freedmen’s Bureau
 

 31. 

farm work of many former slaves
 

 32. 

terrorized African Americans
 

 33. 

helped to spread education
 

 34. 

African-American senator
 

 35. 

Northern pro-Republican whites living in the South
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
bayonet rule
d.
literacy test
b.
Bessemer process
e.
the Redeemers
c.
Henry Grady
 

 36. 

using federal troops to support Reconstruction
 

 37. 

used to discourage African Americans from voting
 

 38. 

“saved” the South from Republican rule
 

 39. 

encouraged the South to “out-Yankee the Yankees”
 

 40. 

helped the growth of Southern industry
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 41. 

Lincoln’s assassination changed the course of Reconstruction because Andrew Johnson
a.
was more lenient towards the South.
b.
was respected as a Democrat and slaveholder.
c.
was not as popular as Lincoln and had difficulty working with Congress.
d.
had friends who had joined the Confederacy.
 

 42. 

What was the goal of the Freedmen’s Bureau?
a.
to help freed African Americans
b.
to help reconstruct the South
c.
to divide the South into military districts
d.
to end the terrorism of the Ku Klux Klan
 

 43. 

Lincoln rejected the Radical Republicans’ plan because
a.
he believed the Southern states would secede again.
b.
he thought punishment would delay healing of the nation.
c.
he supported equality for African Americans.
d.
all of the above
 

 44. 

What allowed Radical Reconstruction to begin?
a.
the election of Ulysses S. Grant
b.
the solid Republican victory in the Congressional elections of 1866
c.
the assassination of Abraham Lincoln
d.
the readmission of most Southern states to the Union
 

 45. 

President Johnston was impeached because he violated
a.
the Reconstruction Act.
b.
the Fourteenth Amendment.
c.
the Tenure of Office Act.
d.
the Constitution’s due process clause.
 

 46. 

Although African Americans served in Congress, they
a.
only served as senators.
b.
were called scalawags.
c.
lost their seats after Reconstruction
d.
all of the above
 

 47. 

As support for Reconstruction weakened in the North,
a.
African Americans lost the right to vote.
b.
the Thirteenth Amendment was passed.
c.
Southern Democrats regained political and economic power.
d.
all of the above
 

 48. 

Frederick Douglass supported the Radical Republicans because
a.
Johnson opposed extending equal rights to African Americans.
b.
their plan did not extend equal rights to African Americans.
c.
Douglass was a Radical Republican Senator.
d.
Douglass profited as an official in the military governments in the South.
 

 49. 

What lasting gains and improvements did Southern African Americans make during Reconstruction?
a.
improvements in education
c.
widespread land ownership
b.
lasting voting rights
d.
eradicating Jim Crow laws
 

 50. 

How did Southern states prohibit African Americans from voting after Reconstruction ended?
a.
poll taxes
c.
grandfather clauses
b.
literacy tests
d.
all of the above
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 51. 

mc051-1.jpg How did sharecroppers get food and clothing before crops were sold?
a.
credit at the local store
c.
donations from the church
b.
borrowing from friends
d.
credit from the landowner
 

 52. 

mc052-1.jpg When did sharecroppers become economically dependent on the landowner?
a.
when they signed a contract
b.
when crops were worth less than extended credit
c.
only when there were crop failures
d.
when they became enslaved
 

 53. 

mc053-1.jpg How did many freed people feel about sharecropping?
a.
It would allow their children to achieve better things.
b.
It was not much better than slavery.
c.
It provided a good opportunity for economic independence.
d.
It was much better than slavery.
 
 
Sir, the witnesses show that many of the young men who were... in the Confederate army joined a secret military organization... [The oath they take shows that theirs is] a political organization, with political ends, political aims; and, although the language is somewhat covert [secret], it shows that the object and intent of that political organization is to prevent large masses of the people of the Southern States from enjoying a right which has been guaranteed to them by the Constitution of our country. . .
Mr. President, I do no know anywhere an organization similar to this Ku-Klux Klan. . . . They are secret, oath-bound; they murder, rob, plunder, whip, and scourge; and they commit these crimes, not upon the high and lofty, but upon the lowly, upon the poor, upon feeble men and women who are utterly defenseless. . . . In all the record of human crime—and God knows it is full enough—where is there an organization against which humanity revolts more than it does against this?
—John Sherman, “It is Essentially a Rebel Organization”
 

 54. 

mc054-1.jpg The Ku Klux Klan was made up of
a.
plantation owners.
c.
ex-Confederate soldiers.
b.
Northerners.
d.
Southern men and women.
 

 55. 

mc055-1.jpg Why did the Ku Klux Klan commit these crimes?
a.
fear of African Americans.
c.
political goals
b.
to gain land.
d.
all of the above
 

 56. 

mc056-1.jpg Federal laws had little effect on the violence because Southerners
a.
backed the violent groups.
b.
were afraid to speak out against violent groups.
c.
could not find Klan members.
d.
both A and B
 

 57. 

The Wade-Davis Bill
a.
established the Freedmen’s Bureau.
b.
was more radical than the Ten Percent Plan.
c.
was supported by John Wilkes Booth.
d.
was signed into law by President Lincoln shortly before his death.
 

 58. 

The Thirteenth Amendment
a.
abolished slavery in all states.
b.
gave equal protection to all citizens.
c.
gave all adult male citizens the right to vote.
d.
all of the above
 

 59. 

How did Congress address black codes in the South?
a.
They set up special civil rights courts.
b.
They passed a civil rights bill.
c.
They passed the Fourteenth Amendment.
d.
all of the above
 

 60. 

Republicans gained control of Southern governments
a.
by impeaching Johnson.
c.
by African-American voters.
b.
by the Tenure of Office Act.
d.
by Southern white voters.
 

 61. 

What was the last major piece of Reconstruction legislation?
a.
the Thirteenth Amendment
c.
the Fifteenth Amendment
b.
the Fourteenth Amendment
d.
the black codes
 

 62. 

President Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction
a.
required men to swear loyalty to the Union.
b.
allowed only men who had not fought the Union to vote.
c.
required 10% of voters to swear loyalty to the Union.
d.
allowed high-ranking Confederates to be pardoned.
 

 63. 

How did some Southerners try to keep control of African Americans during Reconstruction?
a.
They ordered them not to leave the plantations.
b.
The Ku Klux Klan used fear and violence.
c.
They refused to rent them land or give them jobs.
d.
all of the above
 

 64. 

The Compromise of 1877
a.
sent scalawags and carpetbaggers to the South.
b.
strengthened the provisions of the Reconstruction Act.
c.
installed military governments in the South.
d.
effectively ended Reconstruction.
 

 65. 

The Redeemers differed from men who had held power in the South before the Civil War because they
a.
believed in racial equality.
c.
were all KKK members.
b.
favored industrial growth.
d.
were Northern Republicans.
 

 66. 

Sharecroppers were freed people who
a.
set up communal farms.
c.
paid their with their crops
b.
owned small plots of farmland.
d.
worked in the new factories.
 
 
nar003-1.jpg
 

 67. 

mc067-1.jpg Which district was controlled by General Philip Sheridan?
a.
Texas and Louisiana
c.
North and South Carolina
b.
Arkansas and Mississippi
d.
Virginia
 

 68. 

mc068-1.jpg Why was Tennessee not part of a military district?
a.
It had fought on the Union side.
b.
It had ratified the Fourteenth Amendment.
c.
It had seceded from North Carolina.
d.
No former Confederates lived there.
 

 69. 

mc069-1.jpg Why did the Radical Republicans create the military districts?
a.
They wanted to speed up the peaceful integration of Southern states back into the Union.
b.
They were against the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment.
c.
Violence in the South convinced them the Johnson Reconstruction plan was too weak.
d.
all of the above
 
 
Four million persons have just been freed from a condition of dependence. These are people, who, through no fault of their own, have no knowledge of business and do not even have the simplest elements of education. Few of them are mechanics and none of them are skilled manufacturers. They must necessarily, then, become the servants and victims of others unless they are, in some way, made independent of their neighbors. Should we keep them in a position where they have neither skills nor property, then it seems probable that their condition will become so desperate that the war of the races which so many fear, may well take place.
However, by giving them the land and the money with which to build a dwelling, we will make them independent of their old masters. . . .
—Thaddeus Stevens, Proposal to Congress, 1867
 

 70. 

mc070-1.jpg Stevens argued that freed people needed help because they
a.
had only some education.
b.
were independent of their neighbors.
c.
had no education and few skills.
d.
were in a desperate condition.
 

 71. 

mc071-1.jpg Stevens proposed that Congress give freed people land to prevent freed people from
a.
taking jobs from white people.
c.
rebelling against whites.
b.
becoming independent.
d.
returning to slavery.
 

 72. 

mc072-1.jpg How did the Freedmen’s Bureau help freed people?
a.
provided food and clothing
c.
established new schools
b.
helped acquire land
d.
all of the above
 
 
“. . . [The Confederate states] have torn their constitutional States into atoms, and built on their foundations fabrics of a totally different character. Dead men cannot raise themselves. Dead States cannot restore their existence ‘as it was.’ Whose especial duty is it to do it? In whom does the Constitution place the power? Not in the judicial branch of Government, for it only adjudicates and does not prescribe laws. Not in the Executive, for he only executes and cannot make laws. Not in the Commander-in-Chief of the armies, for he can only hold them under military rule until the sovereign legislative power of the conqueror shall give them law. . . .”
 

 73. 

mc073-1.jpg In this passage, Thaddeus Stevens implies that direction of Reconstruction in the southern states is the job of _____.
a.
the state legislatures
c.
the Department of the Interior
b.
the Union army
d.
the Congress
 
 
“. . . [I]n comes a powerful, short-limbed black in tattered overcoat. . . . He has made a crop; found everything—mules, feed, implements; hired his own help,—fifteen men and women; managed everything; by agreement he was able to have one half; but, owing to an attempt to swindle him, he has had the cotton attached and now it is not on his account he has come, but he is owing his men wages, and they want something for Christmas, which he thinks reasonable, and he desires the _____ assistance to raise three hundred dollars. . . . ‘For I'm bound,’ he says, ‘to be liberal with my men.’”
 

 74. 

mc074-1.jpg Which word best fills in the blank for this description of a scene in a federal agency during Reconstruction?
a.
Reconstruction Division’s
c.
Restoration Department’s
b.
Freedmen’s Bureau’s
d.
Resettlement Bureau’s
 
 
“To-day a nation sits down beneath the shadow of its mournful grief. Oh, what a terrible lesson does this event read to us! . . . Well, it may be in the providence of God this blow was needed to intensify the nation's hatred of slavery, to show the utter fallacy of basing national reconstruction upon the votes of returned rebels, and rejecting loyal black men. . . .”
–Frances Ellen Watkins, African American poet, April 1865
 

 75. 

mc075-1.jpg After Lincoln’s assassination, what might African Americans most fear could happen?
a.
the return of the plantation system and slavery
b.
the industrial exploitation of African American labor
c.
the loss of powerful support in the struggle for their rights
d.
the removal of the few African Americans in public office
 
 
“We simply ask that we shall be recognized as men; . . . that the same laws which govern white men shall govern black men; . . . that, in short we be dealt with as others are—in equity and justice.”
–petition of an African American convention, 1865
 

 76. 

mc076-1.jpg As suggested by this passage, after the Civil War most formerly enslaved people sought _____.
a.
revenge for the wrongs done to them
b.
power over whites in government
c.
respect and equality as human beings
d.
repayment for wages owed them
 
 
“Wherever I go—the street, the shop, the house, the hotel, or the steamboat—I hear people talk in such a way as to indicate that they are yet unable to conceive of _____ as possessing any rights at all.”
–Carl Schurz, 1865
 

 77. 

mc077-1.jpg To what group of people does this quotation by a traveler in the South right after the Civil War refer?
a.
unmarried women
c.
Native Americans
b.
African Americans
d.
factory workers
 
 
“All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United Sates and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”
 

 78. 

mc078-1.jpg This description of the rights of United States citizens is a quotation from _____.
a.
the Fugitive Slave Act
c.
the Fourteenth Amendment
b.
the Twelfth Amendment
d.
the First Amendment
 
 
“. . . The juries were made up of Ku-Klux, and it was impossible for any of the loyal people to get justice before the courts. Not less than fifty or sixty persons have been killed by the Ku-Klux in the State, besides some three or four hundred whippings, and there has never been a man convicted that I have heard of. Out of all those that I arrested, against whom there was as good proof as could possibly be given, enough to convict anybody before twelve honest men, I do not think one has ever been tried.”
–Colonel George W. Kirk, a North Carolina state trooper, describing
how the Klan worked to a Senate investigating committee
 

 79. 

mc079-1.jpg According to the excerpt, violence by the Ku Klux Klan against African Americans and their white supporters was _____ to stop because juries often _____.
a.
very easy; were against the Ku Klux Klan and its activities
b.
difficult; did not believe the evidence was strong against the Ku Klux Klan
c.
very difficult; were made up of Ku Klux Klan members
d.
quite easy; felt the evidence was very solid against the Ku Klux Klan
 
 
“The slave went free; stood a brief moment in the sun; then moved back again toward slavery.”
 

 80. 

mc080-1.jpg This quotation presents whose opinion of the impact of Reconstruction?
a.
W.E.B. Du Bois
c.
Thaddeus Stevens
b.
Hiram Revels
d.
Blanche K. Bruce
 
 
“The economic loss which came through war was great, but not nearly as influential as the psychological change, the change in habit and thought.
“The hatred of the Yankees was increased. The defeated Southern leaders were popular heroes. Numbers of Southerners planned to leave the country and go to South America or Mexico. . . .
“The labor situation, the prospect of free Negroes, caused great apprehension. It was accepted as absolutely true by most planers that the Negro could not work without a white master.”
–W.E.B. Du Bois
 

 81. 

mc081-1.jpg The beliefs described in this passage about Charleston, South Carolina, took place in the _____.
a.
late 1850s
c.
mid 1860s
b.
early 1860s
d.
late 1870s
 
 
nar014-1.jpg
 

 82. 

mc082-1.jpg Florida and Alabama were in which of the following military Reconstruction districts?
a.
1st District
c.
3rd District
b.
2nd District
d.
4th District
 

 83. 

mc083-1.jpg Based on the map, who was the Union general in command of the smallest of the Reconstruction districts?
a.
John Pope
c.
Edward Ord
b.
Philip Sheridan
d.
John Schofield
 
 
nar015-1.jpg
 

 84. 

mc084-1.jpg Which of the following states was not readmitted to the Union by 1868?
a.
Tennessee
c.
Alabama
b.
Arkansas
d.
Georgia
 

 85. 

mc085-1.jpg Based on the map, which were the last two states to reestablish conservative governments?
a.
Texas & Virginia
c.
South Carolina & Florida
b.
Arkansas & North Carolina
d.
Louisiana & Florida
 

 86. 

mc086-1.jpg
mc086-2.jpg Based on the map, which general’s military reconstruction district contained the most Southern states?
a.
General Pope
c.
General Sickles
b.
General Ord
d.
General Schofield
 
 
nar016-1.jpg
 

 87. 

mc087-1.jpg Based on the graph, which state had more African American than white representatives.
a.
Georgia
c.
South Carolina
b.
North Carolina
d.
Texas
 

 88. 

mc088-1.jpg Use the graph to answer the question. In which of the following states was African American representation the lowest?
a.
Georgia
c.
Virginia
b.
South Carolina
d.
North Carolina
 
 
“There is no caste here. Our Constitution is color-blind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens. In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law. . . . It is, therefore, to be regretted that this high tribunal, the final expositor of the fundamental law of the land, has reached the conclusion that it is competent for a State to regulate the enjoyment by citizens of their civil rights solely upon the basis of race.”
–from U.S. Supreme Court Justice John Harlan’s dissenting opinion
in Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
 

 89. 

mc089-1.jpg This excerpt from a dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson opposes this case’s “separate but equal” decision that legalized _____.
a.
fair trade for African American firms
b.
racial segregation
c.
unequal wages for African Americans
d.
racial integration
 

Short Answer
 
 
African Americans in the United States Congress, late 1800s
YearNo. of MembersStates RepresentedYearNo. of MembersStates Represented
1870
2
SC, GA1883
1
NC
1871
4
SC, AL, FL1889
1
NC
1873
4
AL, SC, MI1890
2
VA, SC
1875
4
AL, NC, LA, SC1893
1
SC
1877
1
SC1896
1
SC
1882
1
NC1897
1
NC
 

 90. 

sa090-1.jpgIn what year were the first African American members of Congress elected? What states did they represent?
 

 91. 

sa091-1.jpgWhat years had the most African American members of Congress?
 

 92. 

sa092-1.jpgWhich state was most often represented in Congress by African Americans?
 

 93. 

sa093-1.jpgWhy do you think there were four African American members of Congress in 1873, but only three states represented?
 

 94. 

sa094-1.jpgWhich is the only Northern state that had an African American member of Congress during these years?
 
 
“Let there be White Leagues formed in every town, village and hamlet of the South, and let us organize for the great struggle which seems inevitable. If the October elections which are to be held at the North are favorable to the radicals, the time will have arrived for us to prepare for the very worst. The radicalism of the republican party must be met by the radicalism of white men. We have no war to make against the United States Government, but against the republican party our hate must be unquenchable, our war interminable and merciless. Fast fleeting away is the day of wordy protests and idle appeals to the magnanimity of the republican party. By brute force they are endeavoring to force us into acquiescence to their hideous programme. We have submitted long enough to indignities, and it is time to meet brute-force with brute-force.”
Atlanta News, editorial, 1874
 

 95. 

sa095-1.jpgWhat point of view is expressed in this passage?
 

 96. 

sa096-1.jpg
sa096-2.jpgBased on the time line, during whose presidential administration was the Fifteenth Amendment ratified?
 

 97. 

The Wade-Davis Bill passed by Congress in 1864 convinced Lincoln he would have to ____ with the Radical Republicans.
 

 98. 

What was Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan?
 

 99. 

What services did the Freedmen’s Bureau offer African Americans and pro-Union Southerners?
 

 100. 

Radical Republicans in Congress refused to accept Southern representatives under the ____.
 

 101. 

The ____ Amendment guaranteed African Americans full rights under the law.
 

 102. 

What right did the Fifteenth Amendment provide to African-American men?
 

 103. 

Blanche K. Bruce was an African-American ____ elected from Mississippi before 1880.
 

 104. 

People whom former Confederates called “scalawags” and “carpetbaggers” were supporters of what political party during Reconstruction?
 

 105. 

About how many new schools had been established in the South by 1870?
 

 106. 

What were the consequences of the 1872 Amnesty Act for the South?
 

 107. 

The election of President ____ signaled the end of Reconstruction in the South.
 

 108. 

Poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses were designed to keep African Americans from ____.
 

 109. 

____ were issued by Southern states to form a segregated society and keep the races separate.
 



 
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