CHAPTER ONE TEST
Discuss the Europeans’ reasons for exploring.
rise of the ambitious strong nations: Spain,
Portugal, England, and France caused them to
seek sources of wealth outside their territory.
Exploration allowed them to find new trade routes or new
sources of wealth like gold, silver, or goods like silk and spices.
technology led to better tools and ships which also made nations more
powerful. The growth of
trade brought about by the Italian city states (Livorno, Genoa,
was stifled by the difficulty of the terrain, conflict with the Arab
world, and higher prices sought by Asian traders.
European’s wanted more goods and looked for better ways to get
Polo wrote a book about China
and they used compasses.
Describe the role of Spanish and Portuguese explorers in the
Age of Exploration.
Henry established a center of exploration.
Bartolomeu Dias reached the southern tip of Africa. Vasco da Gama sailed to India discovering the first sea
route to India. Pedro Alvares Cabral
discovered Brazil accidentally, giving Portugal
land in the America’s.
sailing to find a route to India
for Spain discovered the New
Magellan sailed around the world (circumnavigated). The conquistadors Hernando
Cortes and Juan Pizzarro conquered lands in Central and South America
bringing new land and gold to Spain. De Soto
and Coronado explored North America
discovering the Mississippi River
and the Southwest.
Henry’s center brought in astronomers, geographers, and
mathematicians to work with ship builders and sailors.
King John renamed the tip of Africa the Cape
of Good Hope to encourage sailing around this hazardous
point. Da Gama visited many cities
along the way to India. Columbus
actually discovered two new continents.
Only 18 of Magellan’s crew survived the
circumnavigation. Cortes conquered the Aztecs
and Pizzarro conquered the Incas.
Disease played an important role in the destruction of the
Aztec and Incan Empires by these small bands of Spanish
Spanish were really searching for quick sources of gold to aid them
in their struggles with England. The Spanish established
many forts in present day North America
before the arrival of other nation’s explorers.
led the way in searching for sea routes to Asia. Spanish conquistadors found
gold and conquered people in South America.
Explain the impact of national rivalries on exploring the Americas
and Portugal, England and Spain, the Dutch (Netherlands), and
French were competing both for trade and between each other for
political or religious reasons. The
Spanish and Portuguese concentrated on finding trade routes to Asia
around South America while the English, Dutch, and French sought the Northwest
Passage. Because of the rivalries
the countries began staking out more territories in the New World and
either defending them from each other or attacking them to eliminate
them. England had
adventurers like Sir Francis Drake attack the Spanish ships.
Dutch and French paid explorers from other countries to work for
them. England used piracy to
steal Spanish wealth.
European nations carried their rivalries to the New
World and fought for control of wealth and trade routes.
countries fought each other over land and wealth in the New
Explain the influence of Greece
on later political thought
provided the concept of democracy in which people gathered in mass
meetings to decide things. Rome provided the concepts of
the rule of law and the republic.
Laws apply equally to everyone and people choose their
Greeks developed philosophy or a love of wisdom which led to the
study of history and political science.
Rule of law is an understanding of justice that is the basis
of the American legal system today.
allowed everyone to vote. The
had rules of law that applied to every one.
voted and Romans had laws in their Republic.
Explain Renaissance ideas on government and religion
Renaissance was a period of rebirth and renewed interest in classical
Greek and Roman learning. With
the Rise of Protestantism, people criticized the abuse of authority
by the Catholic Church and broke away forming their own, new
churches. The rising nation states
supported these churches, further lessening the authority of the
Catholic Church. In England, the Puritans
wanted to purify the Anglican Church, but they were persecuted and
eventually were sent to form the American colonies.
The English Bill of Rights guaranteed certain rights to
individuals and inspired the American Bill of Rights.
the Italian merchants brought wealth to the Italian states they
pursued an interest in the past and learning.
Scholars began writing about the individual and the universe. Martin Luther led a revolt
against the church which strengthened the authority of the rising
nation states and led to an increase in exploration.
John Calvin ideas, CALVINISM, encouraged people to work hard
and behave themselves. The
English Bill of Rights established the principle of limited
Renaissance was a period of artistic and intellectual thinking. People formed their own
churches and nations gained more power.
Renaissance happened after the Middle Ages. People didn’t like
some of the things the Catholic Church was doing.
Discuss the ideas of Enlightenment thinkers
3-The Enlightenment was a
period of time when educated Europeans believed that reason was a
better guide than faith or tradition.
Copernicus and Galileo questioned the idea that the Earth was
the center of the solar system. Newton
claimed that the physical universe followed natural laws. Voltaire opposed the
government supporting one religion over another.
Montesquieu thought government should separate its power
between legislative, judicial, and executive branches. Rousseau thought people
shouldn’t rely only on reason, but should consider their
feelings. He also thought that
society agrees to be governed by the general will.
Thomas Hobbes thought humans were naturally selfish and
violent and that a strong ruler was required to direct people. John Locke thought that
people have natural rights and that government was responsible to the
4-The ideas of the
Enlightenment thinkers formed the basis for many concepts of American
Government. The ideas of Natural rights
that cannot be taken away; that the legislative, executive, and
judicial powers of government should be separate and equal; and that
governments serve the will of the people and not tell them what to
thinkers thought that reason was better than faith.
They thought people have rights and that the government should
listen to them. Diderot
created a dictionary and Voltaire thought people should choose their
own religion. Montesquieu thought
governments should share power and Rousseau thought government should
make a Social Contract with people.
Hobbes thought people needed a strong leader because they were
naturally bad and Locke thought people have rights the government can’t
thinkers thought people have rights and that the government should
respect them and let them be free to choose.